The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine.
Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters, one on each side of your bladder. Your bladder stores urine. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are part of your urinary tract.
Your kidneys remove wastes and extra fluid from your body. Your kidneys also remove acid that is produced by the cells of your body and maintain a healthy balance of water, salts, and minerals—such as sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium—in your blood.
Without this balance, nerves, muscles, and other tissues in your body may not work normally.
Your kidneys also make hormones that help

  • control your blood pressure
  • make red blood cells
  • keep your bones strong and healthy


Haemodialysis is a procedure to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys stop working properly. In hemodialysis, small amount of blood is removed from the body at a time and filtered through a man-made membrane called a dialyzer, or artificial kidney, and then the filtered blood is returned to the body. Haemodialysis is a way of cleansing the blood of toxins, extra salt and fluids through a dialysis machine. It helps maintain proper chemical balance such as potassium, sodium and chloride and keeps blood pressure under control.
Peritoneal dialysis is a procedure to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys stop working properly. In Peritoneal Dialysis lining of your abdomen, or belly, is used to filter your blood inside your body. When you start treatment, dialysis solution(dialysate)—water with salt and other additives—flows from a bag through the tube(CAPD catheter) into your belly (peritoneal cavity). The dialysate absorbs waste products from blood vessels in your abdominal lining (peritoneum) and then is drawn back out of your body and discarded, hence cleaning your body of the toxins, extra salt and fluids.


Kidney Doctor is called as ‘Nephrologist’. When you visit Him/Her, he/she will gather information from you. He or she will review your medical history, and do a complete physical exam. To determine how your kidneys are functioning, he or she will order blood and urine tests. A kidney ultrasound may be required, and additional studies may be necessary.


Vascular access procedures are the prerequisite to start the patient on Dialysis. Commonly used vascular access procedures are Jugular Catheterization, Perm Catheterization, and ArterioVenous Fistula.


A Kidney biopsy is a procedure used to extract kidney tissue for laboratory analysis. It is done under Sonography guidance. For doing this patient needs to be admitted in the Hospital for 2 days. The test helps your doctor identify the type of kidney disease you have, how severe it is, and the best treatment for it.


When your kidneys lose its filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which can raise your blood pressure and result in kidney failure( which is also known as end-stage kidney disease). In such a situation ‘Healthy Kidney’ is implanted in the Body through Surgery. This ‘Healthy Kidney’ either comes from a Living Donor or a Brain dead person.


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden episode of kidney failure or kidney damage that happens within a few hours or a few days. AKI causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it hard for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in your body.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually caused by a long-term disease, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, that slowly damages the kidneys and reduces their function over time. Acute kidney injury, is more commonly reversible than chronic kidney disease.


High blood sugar levels for a prolong period of time, can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. When the blood vessels are damaged, they don't work as well. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can also damage your kidneys.
When diagnosed early, it may be possible to stop diabetic kidney disease and fix the damage. If the disease continues, however, the damage may not be reversible. That is why, it is important to act fast and earlier in the disease process.


uncontrolled high blood pressure over time can cause arteries around the kidneys to narrow, weaken or harden. These damaged arteries are not able to deliver enough blood to the kidney tissue, which causes progressive loss of Kidney function. As high Blood Pressure damages the Kidney similarly primary Kidney Disease can cause High Blood Pressure and enhance the Kidney damage further. In both the situation it is atmost important to control the Blood Pressure optimally.


Though painful, a kidney stone typically does not cause damage. However, kidney stones can be a sign of other health issues. ... Usually, kidney stones that stay in the kidney aren't noticeable. The pain is a result of the kidney stone beginning to move from a kidney to the bladder through a tube called the ureter. kidney stones can cause enough damage to lower the Kidney Function. Usually the reduction is very modest, but sometimes stones can cause kidney failure. Early Investigation and treatment can save the Kidney damage.
Kidney cysts are round pouches of fluid that form on or in the kidneys. Kidney cysts can be associated with serious disorders that may impair kidney function. But more commonly, simple kidney cysts — noncancerous cysts that rarely cause complications.


Protein in urine also called as Proteinuria. It is the presence of excess Protein in the urine. In healthy persons, urine contains very little protein; an excess is suggestive of illness. Excess protein in the urine often causes the urine to become foamy.
Blood in urine also called as hematuria. Your kidneys — or other parts of your urinary tract — allow blood cells to leak into urine. Various problems can cause this leakage, including: Urinary tract infections, Kidney Stones, Kidney Cysts.


1 in 3 adults is at risk for kidney disease. What puts you at risk for kidney disease? Major risk factors include Diabetes, High blood Pressure, a family history of kidney failure and being age 60 and older.
Kidney disease often has no symptoms, and it can go undetected until very advanced. But a simple Urine test can tell you if you have kidney disease. Remember, it's important to get tested because early detection and treatment can slow or prevent the progression of kidney disease.